By Kaare Christian
Modula-2 is a straightforward but strong programming language that's appropriate for a wide selection of functions. it truly is in response to Pascal, a profitable programming language that used to be brought in 1970 by means of Niklaus Wirth. in the course of the 1970's Pascal grew to become the main commonly taught programming language and it received recognition in technological know-how and undefined. In 1980 Dr. Wirth published the Modula-2 application ming language. Modula-2 is an evolution of Pascal. It improves at the successes of Pascal whereas including the MODULE - a device for ex urgent the family among the most important components of courses. In advert dition Modula-2 comprises low-level positive aspects for structures application ming and coroutines for concurrent programming. Programming languages are vital simply because they're used to specific rules. a few programming languages are so restricted that yes principles cannot be simply expressed. for instance languages that lac ok floating aspect mathematics are irrelevant for medical com putations. Languages similar to easy and Fortran that lack recur sion are flawed for textual content processing or structures programming. occasionally a programming language is useable for a definite appli cation however it is way from excellent. an excellent instance is the trouble of writing huge courses in natural Pascal. Pascal is a terrible language for big jobs since it lacks amenities for partitioning a software viii Preface 6< ; ~~~~er zero\ Sheet steel Tube /" zero (to Affix Eraser to Shaft) ~ hole wood Shaft A Lead middle determine 1. An exploded diagram. into separate items that may be built independently.
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Extra info for A Guide to Modula-2
2. "); WriteLn END END MakeChange. Since mixed operations aren't allowed in Modula-2, you have to be careful when you write expressions that involve the comparison operators and the arithmetic operators. It is legal to compare arithmetic expressions but it is illegal to perform arithmetic on the results of a comparison. The rules for expressions are discussed more fully in a later section of this chapter. For now you should note that the expression Part I. 42 (5 1< 10) < = (2 1< 2 1< 2 1< 2) is legal because it compares the results of two INTEGER arithmetic operations but the expression (5 < 10) 1< (2 > 1) is illegal because it performs arithmetic on the result of comparison operations.
If these routines are used extensively it becomes unpleasant to type the qualified identifier each time. Here is another version of the hello program that uses unqualified names. '); WriteLn END hello1. Notice the FROM phrase in the IMPORT list. This allows unqualified references to Wri teString and Wri teLn. 1. 4. An Overview of the InOut global MODULE In Modula-2 I/O operations aren't built into the language. Instead I/O operations are contained in a set of global MODULES that are provided with each Modula-2 system.
Here is the syntax diagram for the declaration part of a block. 2. 1 - Except for dynamically allocated variables (Chapter 14), all variables in Modula-2 must be declared. It is usually an error to use a name in a program that doesn't appear in a declaration. There are three exceptions • Keywords • Standard Identifiers • Imported Identifiers Many older languages such as Fortran and Basic are much more cavalier about declarations. In these more relaxed languages you don't have to declare all of your variables, or you only need declarations for certain variables.
A Guide to Modula-2 by Kaare Christian